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Ghibelline rule was short-lived, however, for in , Charles of Anjou and his largely French army defeated and killed Manfred at Benevento see map , and in , in a battle at Tagliacozzo see map , captured Frederick's eighteen-year-old grandson Conradino, later be- headed in Naples. Charles was thus established as the ruler of Sicily and southern Italy, under the overlords hip of the pope, and his hegemony extended much further; he was made podesta of Florence, where he ruled through vicarii [vicars].

The Angevin "protectorate" thus replaced Hohenstaufen "tyranny," until the death of Charles of Anjou in and the election of Pope Boniface VIII in the same year, when once again the balance of power shifted. Many Italian cities remained Ghibelline after Charles's victory; some of the more prominent were Verona, Siena, and Pisa. Guelf Florence was continually at war with its Tuscan Ghibelline rivals. According to a 7 letter written by Dante now lost , Dante was in the first line of cavalry at the battle ofCampaldino inJune , when the Guelfs defeated the Ghibellines of Arezzo; in Inferno 22 he tells us that he saw the surrender of Caprona, a Pisan stronghold, which took place later in the same year.

Periods of uneasy peace alternated with anned conflict; Florence was to achieve definite victory over its hated rival Pisa only in the sixteenth century.

There were efforts to reconcile Ghibellines and Gudfs within Florence, the most important ohvhich took place in ; after its failure, the city embarked on a new process of democratizing its constitution the Secondo popolo , which shifted all power of choosing city officials to the trade guilds, while eventually expanding the number of enfranchised guilds from seven to twenty-one.

A decade after the creation in of a board of six Priori [priorsl as the executive branch of the government, the process of democratization came to a head with the promulgation of the OrdilJamenti digiustizia [Ordinances of]ustice] in , whose main provision was to exclude from public offices all members of noble families sufficiently powerful to be classed as Magnates; soon thereafter, however, several of the more rigid restrictions were relaxed , and it became possible for nobles who were guild members to hold public office.

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This made it possible for Dante to enter politics, and he became eligible to do so by joining the guild Arte of doctors and apothecaries. The election of Benedetto Caetani, member of a powerful Roman clan, to the papacy as Boniface VIII brought to the throne of Saint Peter a particularly able, ambitious, and ruthless man, eager to consolidate and extend the power of the Church everywhere in Europe.

He claimed that with the imperial throne vacant, jurisdiction over Tuscany reverted to the papacy, and he was determined to break the Florentine habit of independence. Dante advanced through a series of minor offices and at last, in , was elected to serve a normal two-month tern1 as one of the six priors Tune is-August 15 , but his rise to political influence took place in circumstances that were increasingly dangerous, particularly since the antagonism between the White Guelfs Dante's party and the Black Guelfs became increasingly hostile, culminating in bloody riots on May 1 and June 23 perhaps intentionally fostered by the pope.

The six pri- ors, Dante among them, exiled the leaders of the two factions, including the turbulent Guido Cavalcanti, Dante's friend see the notes to Cmto 10 ; the Blacks, however, refused to abide by the sentence, and the next group of priors recalled the Whites as well.

These trouble, were the subject of many anxious public meetings, at which it seems clear that Dante took a leading role. Those who, like Dante, were desirous of moderation and reconciliation decided to appeal 8 to the pope to mediate between the two parties, unaware that he secretly favored the Blacks, and to this end the city sent two embassies to Rome, one in November and one in October Dante was a member of at least one of these delegations, though it is not entirely certain which one; according to early biographers, he was in Siena, on his way home from the second of them in November , when he learned of the events that would mean he would never again see his beloved native city.

For Boniface had secretly connived both with the Blacks and with a young brother of Philip IV the Fair of France, the adventurer Charles of Valois Lackland , who was leading an army south to attempt the reconquest of Sicily, which had rebelled against the Angevins in On November 1, , as the official peacemaker appointed by the pope, Charles gained entry to Florence with his army. Once inside, according to his agreement with the pope documentation of which still exists , he cooperated with the Blacks in their violent coup d'etat, during which the leading White Guelfs were killed or driven from the city and had their property confiscated or destroyed.

Dante was accused and tried in absentia Oanuary on tlUmped- up charges offorgery, embezzlement, and opposition to the pope; when he did not respond he was, in subsequent proclamations, stripped of his property and condemned, if captured, to be burnt at the stake.

Confisca- tion of property, exile, and loss of citizenship were even more severe to a Tuscan of than the equivalent would be today; there was no pro- vision for "naturalization" into some other community; also, as Dante complained, the unthinking supposed that official condemnation must be justified.

Table of contents

By the time of his exile Dante was known as a poet and intellectual of some distinction. Precisely where he began the education that ultimately made him one of the best-informed individuals of his age is not fully known.

He probably had private tutoring as a boy, which taught him the rudiments of Latin and a few of the elementary Latin classics, like Phaedrus's Fables and the Distichs of Cato. He may have attended the ca- thedral school, and there is a strong possibility that he was able to attend lectures accessible to laymen at the studia of Santa Maria Novella and Santa Croce, where he might have heard teachers like the Dominican Remigio de' Girolami, who had strong views on the importance of civic institu- tions, and Peter John Olivi, a radical Franciscan critic of ecclesiastical wealth.

It is virtually certain that Dante went to Bologna in the late s one of his poems was copied there in ; there he would have come into contact with the dominant intellectual trend of Aristotelian natural science, though in what capacity we do not know.

That he had any direct schooling from Brunetto Latini, the pre humanist described by the chroni- 9 cler Villani as the "refiner of the Florentines," is uncertain, but Brunetto- a man ofletters, the political theorist of the Secondo popolo, and a trusted political counselor to the Florentine commune from until his death in provided him with an important early example of civic en- gagement inspired by classical models.

The high culture of the Middle Ages had always been dominated by Latin, the language of the Bible, of the Church, of government, diplo- macy, theology, philosophy, science. Only recently, first in Provence with the upsurge, beginning in the early twelfth century, of a brilliam courtly civilization whose most characteristic product was the poetry of the troubadors, had poetry and prose in a European vernacular be- gun to attract international notice.

The movement caught on at the French-speaking court of the Angevin kings of England and in north- ern France, especially in the aristocratic circles of prosperous cities, often the courts of minor rulers.

Concomitantly with the development of the Gothic cathedrals came the spread of courtly romance, including Arthurian romance, courtly love poetry, and courtly ideals of behavior and style, especially through the influence of the poet Chretien de Troyes active in Champagne ca. With the rise of the universities, poetry in the vernacular became increasingly learned.

Paris became an important literary as well as intellectual center, and philo- sophical poetry in the vernacular was born with the continuation and completion ca. Literary prose came into existence in French as vast cycles of Arthurian romance were compiled in the early thir- teenth century: the so-called Vulgate Cycle, centering on Lancelot and Guinevere, and the Tristan Cycle.

The fashions spread to Austria, Spain, England, Italy, and elsewhere. In Italy the themes and forms of troubador verse were introduced, as we have mentioned, at the court of Frederick II, which traveled both in the north and in the south and kept in contact with new trends every- vvhere. Soon after midcentury the movement was spreading [0 Tuscany, with the satirical, moralizing canzoni of Guitrone d' Arezzo, and to the Italian university cities, especially Bologna, where Guido Guinizelli, probably a promi- nent judge, created a new suavity and philosophical intensity in love poetry; Dante was co call Guinizelli "the father of me and of all my bet- ters who ever used sweet, graceful rhymes oflove" Pllrg.

Legal circles in Bologna took keen interest in the new poetry, and the fashion arose of filling out the spaces at the bottom of parchment legal docu- ments as an attestation of the integrity of the pages with quotations from 10 it, a fashion that enables us to document the early circulation of Dante's lyrics and of the Inferno. In Florence, in ferment with its new expansion and prosperity. When Dante was in his teens there were a score of accomplished writers of sonnets and canzoni: lawyers, physicians, and aristocrats.

Dante began writing poetry-mainly sonnets and canzoni-under the influence especially of Guinizelli, from whom he adopted the theme of the so-called donna angelicata, the lady so pure and beautiful as to seem an angel, named Beatrice [she who makes blessed] in Dante's poems. His entrance on the Florentine literary scene was characteristically self-conscious, if it followed a typical mode of the day. He sent a sonnet later made the first poem in the Vita nuova to "many of those who were famous poets in those days," as he says in the Vita nuova, including the most elegant and gifted of them, Guido Cavalcanti, whom we have already met as a turbulent Guel The sonnet asked for interpretation of a portentous love-dream; three replies survive, including one from Cavalcanti, which Dante says was "quasi 10 principio de l' amista tra lui e me" [almost the beginning of the friendship between him and me].

In retrospect Dante's entrance on the literary scene can seem portentous. His works, and those of his followers Petrarch and Boccaccio, established the Tuscan vernacular as a literary medium worthy of com- parison with Latin and Greek. This prestige in tum led to the great revo- lution of literary style of the Renaissance as Italian influence spread throughout Europe in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries.

The Vita nuova, Dante's first important work, completed by , is a selection among his early poems about Beatrice, accompanied by a prose narrative that explains the occasion of each, arranged so that they form an idealized account of how Beatrice's miraculous influence shaped his life, both as lover and as poet.

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At the center of the book is her death, recorded as occurring on June 8, ; the second half relates a period of grief and disorientation until a vision of her in Heaven calls the writer's devotion back to her memory. It also introduces Dante's complex, in many ways mysterious relationship with his friend and poetic rival Guido Cavalcanti, whose sympathy with heretical philosophical doctrines-such as the mortality of the individual human soul-Dante deplored.

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Giusti, Ennio V. Luarasi ". Studien zu Studio su Ira W. Creating Change '15 ; Nov 27, A decade after the creation in of a board of six Priori [priorsl as the executive branch of the government, the process of democratization came to a head with the promulgation of the OrdilJamenti digiustizia [Ordinances of]ustice] in , whose main provision was to exclude from public offices all members of noble families sufficiently powerful to be classed as Magnates; soon thereafter, however, several of the more rigid restrictions were relaxed , and it became possible for nobles who were guild members to hold public office.

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Use Genmirror to unblock restricted websites from any country. The years to saw Dante in northeastern Italy, in the region then known as the March ofTreviso; he was in Padova in , where he may have met Giotto at work on the Scrovegni chapel, and in Lunigiana in on an errand for the Malaspina family; in he seems to have been in Forll and may have stopped in Lucca.

The most important labor of Dante's exile was, of course, the vast Comedy--not vast in length it is 14, lines long , but in scope and power. Dino Audino Auctor autem sive creator fuit. Apocalisse parla dell'albero Bangla Pop..

The years to had witnessed the introduction of the majority of the cor- pus of Aristotle's writings, including works on physics, biology, ethics, psychology in the older sense, the study of the embodied rational soul , politics, and metaphysics.

La rivelazione di Pietro a Clemente.

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