EENY Seedcorn maggot, Delia platura (Meigen) (Insecta: Diptera: Anthomyiidae)1. Harsimran Kaur Gill, Gaurav Goyal, and Jennifer L. Gillett- Kaufman2. 1. Delia platura Meigen is an important pest in crops around the world. Its host range The bean seed fly, Delia platura (Meigen) (Diptera: Anthomyiidae), is a .. ( PDF | Bean seed fly and onion fly are significant pests of alliaceous Bean seed fly were not split between Delia platura or Delia florilega.

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PDF | Scientific Note | ResearchGate, the professional network for scientists. Figure G. Damaged seedlings due to maggots of Delia platura. Onion maggot, Delia antiqua (Meigen), and seedcorn maggot, Delia platura ( Meigen), are .. /Recherche_Innovation/Legumesdechamp/PROJETNOpdf. Seedcorn Maggot or Bean Seed Fly, Delia platura (Meigen) (Diptera: Anthomyiidae). Authors; Authors and Download entry PDF. How to cite. Seedcorn.

The bristles are inserted into a cuticular socket and had longitudinal grooves evident in its hair-like shaft. The basiconic sensilla are small and similar to those observed on the antennal funiculus in morphology Fig. Thorax The thorax of adult D. SEM micrographs of palpus features of adult male Delia platura. A: The front view of palpus. B: The lateral view of the palpi, with numerous short microtrichia and several long chaetic sensilla.

C: Magnification of the palpus, showing the distribution of basiconic sensilla arrows. D: Higher magnification of basiconic sensilla.

Ba, basiconic sensilla. The mesonotum that consists of the entire dorsum of the mesothorax is covered with microtrichia Figs. Sensilla, which emanated from swollen, dome-shaped sockets in the scutum and amongst numerous short microtrichia, are straight and sharp-tipped with prominent longitudinal grooved Fig.

The anterior spiracles mesothoracic are located near the junction of the pronotum and the mesonotum and appear as elliptical structures, with their upper portions partially open. The setae surrounding the mesothoracic spiracle are arranged in a single line along the rim of each spiracle Fig. The posterior spiracles metathoracic with two clusters of long setae distributed on its rim are shaped as a rounded isosceles triangle Fig.

Beneath the two clusters of setae, a latticed membrane is observed Fig. The wing membrane integument and the whole calypter are densely covered with microtrichia Figs.

Moreover, strong chaetic sensilla are implanted in the costal vein on the anterior margin of the wing and periphery of the upper and lower calypters Figs.

The haltere of D. A close-up view of the lateral portion of the base revealed that a set of campaniMicroscopy Research and Technique form sensilla is apparent Figs. These rows of campaniform sensilla are perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the haltere. The terminal end of the knob possesses a sporadic group of sensilla Fig. Legs are composed of a coxa, trochanter, femur, tibia, and five tarsal segments.

The distal part of the terminal tarsomere is a tube bearing the tendon of the claw flexor muscle and articulated with the pretarsus. Pulvillus is connected to the tarsus by an elastic part containing resilin-like cuticle. It is structure adapted for attachment to a variety of surfaces and elongateoval in shape, but their anterior end tapering Fig.

The ventral surface of a pulvillus is densely covered by the tenent setae of spoon-like tip Fig. Abdomen Compared with the head and thorax, the abdomen of most insects typically has a highly reduced number of appendages. An examination of abdomen of male D.

Long setae appear as stout hair shafts bearing longitudinal grooves and inserted into cuticular socket Figs. A lateral view of the male genitalia of D.

The phallus Q. SEM micrographs of thorax features of adult male Delia platura. A: Lateral view of mesonotum showing dense microtrichia and long chaetic sensilla projecting posteriorly. B: Enlarged view of mesonotum showing microtrichia. C: Lateral view of scutellum showing several sensilla.

Higher magnification of these sensilla is in the box.

D: Enlarged view of the anterior mesothoracic spiracle. E: Posterior metathoracic spiracle, with two clusters of setae distributed on its rim. F: Enlarged view of the inside of the posterior spiracle, showing the latticed membrane. Several setae are observed on the pregonite Fig. The postgonite situated underneath the pregonite and is terminally curved inward. Several short sensilla are found on the basal region Fig.


The surstyli are large and swollen at the base, gradually decreasing terminally, slightly curving inwardly, and more or less rounded at the apical end Fig. The external portion of the surstyli are greatly endowed along the lower half region with long bristles, which are morphologically similar to the triochoid sensilla. In addition, chaetic sensilla existed at the proximal region Figs. Three types of campaniform sensilla are observed all over the upper half region Figs.

As for the ventral view of the female genitalia, the elongated ovipositor can be observed Fig. The cerci, which are equipped with many long bristles, are more or less sclerotized and epiproct is lying between them Fig. Lots of bristles and microtrichia are observed on the ovipositor Figs. The compound eyes are the most important visual organs, and the number of ommatidia varies depending on the biology of the insect Elzinga, Microscopy Research and Technique Fig. SEM micrographs of mesonotal wing and calypter of adult male Delia platura.

A: Anterior margin of costal vein implanted with stout chaotic sensilla. B: Microtrichiae on dorsal surface of wing membrane integument; part of the vein is showed in the box. C: The margin of the wing on the dorsal surface; higher magnification of long and slightly bend setae is showed in the box. D: Dorsal view of the whole calypter.

SEM micrographs of haltere of adult male Delia platura. A: Lateral view of the metathorax identifying upper calypter and lower calypter. Arrow indicates a set of campaniform sensilla. B: Set of campaniform sensilla presented as several rows perpendicular to longitudinal axis of haltere. C: Enlarged view of the campaniform sensilla. D: Terminal end of knob with several sensilla.

SEM micrographs of pretarsus features of adult male Delia platura. A: Pulvilli of midleg showing numerous tenent setae covering on the surface. B: Enlarged view of pulvilli. C: Higher magnification of pulvilli showing the distribution of tenent setae with spoon-like tips.

D: Extreme magnification of the tenent setae with a spoon-like tip. SEM micrographs of abdomen features of adult male Delia platura. A: Lateral view of the abdomen, with abundant microtrichiae and a number of long grooved setae. B: Enlarged view of part of the tergite VI showing numerous microtrichiae on the surface and several long setae with longitudinal grooves. C: Higher magnification of microtrichiae.

D: Lateral view of one row of long setae on the rump. E: Higher magnification of these long setae showing longitudinal grooves.

SEM micrographs of genitalia of adult male Delia platura. A: Lateral view of the entire genitalia illustrating the prominent features of the phallus, pregonite, postgonite, surstylus, and cercus. B: Enlarged view of phallus; higher magnification of part of phallus showing slight corrugation.

C: Enlarged view of distal region of postgonite showing the distribution of short sensilla; higher magnification of short sensilla. D: Anterior view of a pair of surstyli; higher magnification of lower half region of surstyli showing the distribution of sensilla. E: Magnification of campaniform sensilla type I.

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F: Magnification of campaniform sensilla type II. G: Magnification of campaniform sensilla type III. H: Magnification of basiconic sensilla with subapical peg. I: Magnification of trichoid sensilla. J: Magnification of chaetic sensilla. Ph, phallus; Prg, pregonite; Pog, postgonite; Sur, surstylus; Cerc, circus.

Regarding the external surface of the corneal lens of the ommatidia, whose role is antireflection Dey and Dkhar, , a detail observation through SEM in this study has revealed the densely postulate appearance in the compound eyes of D.

This characteristic is in accordance with those observed in Chrysomya megacephala Fabricius Sukontason et al. Shanbhag et al. Morphology and function of five types of surface sensilla and one type of pit sensilla that found on the antennae of D.

Seedcorn Maggot in Kentucky Soybean

In addition to the sensilla that have been reported previously, pedicellar button are also found on the distal articular surface of pedicel of antennae of adult male D. The pedicellar button are cuticular component of a chordotonal organ, which may act as baroreceptor McAlpine, Bascionic sensilla and bristles, which function as olfactory receptors and mechanoreceptors respectively, are found on the Microscopy Research and Technique Q.

SEM micrographs of genitalia of adult female Delia platura.

A: Dorsal view showing extended ovipositor. B: Detail of the dorsal view displaying a pair of sclerotized cerci and the epiproct between them. C: Higher magnification of bristle on the genitalia of adult female D. D: Long microtrichiae on the ovipositor.

Epiprct, epiproct; Cerc, circus. Both sides of the wings of D. A closer observation showed that all the microtrichiae are parallel to the adjacent veins. No significant morphological differences were observed between the microtrichiae on both sides of the wings. Previous research has discussed that microtrichiae could serve as a hydrophobic structure that prevents the wings from wetting in various insects Wagner et al. Nonwetting property of insect wings is crucial for the survival of insects in wet environments, as insects could be permanently trapped by water or wet surface.

Super-hydrophobic or self-clean property of insect wings could lead to next generation of contamination resistant or self-cleaning materials Watson et al. The stout chaetic sensilla on the anterior edge of the wings are structurally similar to the ones found on scape and pedicle.

The specialized basal structure indicates mechanosensory function. However, odorantbinding and chemosensory proteins were discovered in Drosophila wings Shanbhag et al. Interestingly, mesothoracic and metathoracic spiracles of D. It has been suggested that these setae act as protection from entering the dust or fine particles in the tracheal system Chapman, In regard to metathoracic spiracles, two clusters of setae observed in D.

Moreover, our detailed view of metathoracic spiracles clearly demonstrated the latticed membrane, which acts as protection apparatus, differed markedly from that of Manduca sexta Linnaeus Wasserthal, Sukontason et al. Pulvilli are structures adapted for attachment to a variety of surfaces Gorb, ; Niederegger et al. The ventral surface of pulvilli of D. Moreover, tenent setae with a spatula-like tip and a pointed-like tip are also found on the ventral surface of pulvilli Sukontason et al.

However, either the bearing spatula-like or spoon-like tip of the tenent setae increase the number of contact points for attachment to a surface Gorb and Gorb, Morphological features of the male genitalia, especially the cerci, differed markedly between species, and thus are often used to identify flies and other insects Senior-White et al.

In our study, several short sensilla are found on postgonite, which are similar to that of Agria mihalyii Rohdendorf and Verves Zhang et al.

In addition, six types of sensilla that include trichoid sensilla, chaetic sensilla, three types of campaniform sensilla Ca , and basiconic sensilla are found on the surstyli. The Ca is thought to monitor general pressure in the cuticle, possibly through some directional sensitivity but it is certainly not as specific as other types of mechanoreceptive sensilla Bromley et al.

However, the mechanosensory function of these sensilla located in the male genitalia for aiding copulation in insects has been proposed in many studies Rossignol and McIver, ; Spiegel et al. In conclusion, the ultrastructural study of several organs of D. Species-specific effects of single sensillum ablation on mating position in Drosophila.

J Exp Biol — Int J Insect Morphol Embryol — Ultrastructure of the antennal sensilla of aphids II. Trichoid, chordotonal and campaniform sensilla. Cell Tissue Res — Chapman RF. The insects structure and function, 4th ed.

UK: Cambridge University Press. A note on the incidence of seed corn maggot, Delia platura Meigen Anthomyiidae: Diptera in spring sown maize. Bull Entomol New Delhi — Study on the superhydrophobic characteristic of butterfly wing surface.

J Bionics Eng — Flesh flies Diptera: Sarcophagidae associated with North American pitcher plants Sarraceniaceae , with descriptions of three new species. Ann Entomol Soc Am — Dey S, Dkhar B. An unusual type of corneal nipple in the earwig Forficula sp. Micron Microsc Acta — Dickinson MH. Haltere-mediated equilibrium reflexes of the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster.

Drechsler P, Federle W. Biomechanics of smooth adhesive pads in insects: Influence of tarsal secretion on attachment performance. J Comp Physiol A — Elzinga RJ. Fundamentals of entomology, 6th ed. New Jersey: Pearson Education.

Scanning electron microscopy studies of sensilla and other structures of adult Dermatobia hominis Diptera: Cuterebridae. J Med Entomol — Finch S. Ecological considerations in the management of Delia pest species in vegetable crops. Annu Rev Entomol — In fact, many seeds and roots are at risk if this insect is present. The larvae maggots develop in the soil and feed on decaying organic matter.

They also will attack newly planted seeds both before and after emergence. If feeding occurs before germination the seeds will die.

If feeding occurs after germination, the resulting damage will vary depending upon the number of maggots present and plant age. Minor feeding damage may simply slow plant development. Moderate feeding damage to the growing point may result in two stems. Severe damage often kills the plants. Infestations are most often found when full season soybeans are planted cool, wet soil using reduced tillage.

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The greater the crop residue, the higher the potential for infestation. It looks very much like a small house fly.Colombian soil nematode isolates evaluated on Delia platura. Griffin et al. B: Enlarged view of the mouthpart surface revealing dense covering of sharp-tipped microtrichia and chaetic sensilla emanating from their sockets.

Specimens remained in each concentration of ethanol for 12 h during each step of the dehydration process. Diptera: Anthomyiidae in canola fields at Morinville, Alberta. B: Enlarged view of part of the tergite VI showing numerous microtrichiae on the surface and several long setae with longitudinal grooves. For immediate access to more information visit our family of web sites at:.

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